Millisecond Pulsar Catalogue

List of rotation and accretion powered millisecond pulsars

compiled by Alessandro Patruno
last updated 2 May. 2017

If you spot a mistake please submit a correction with this form:

NOTES

The pulsars are shown with their spin period in ascending order. The AMXPs are instead displayed at the end of the table.

The criteria used for sources selections are the following:

  • Spin period < 30 ms
  • Surface Magnetic Field < 1e11 G

[The source B1718-19 (spin P~1 s) is not included even if this is a Redback]

An ASCII version of the table is available upon request

Resources: ATNF pulsar catalogue
P. Freire’s globular cluster catalogue
D. Lorimer’s Catalogue
A. Patruno & A. Watts 2012 “Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsars”
Public List of LAT-Detected Gamma-Ray Pulsars
M. Roberts 2012 “Surrounded by Spiders”

Source Type Notation:

MSP = millisecond pulsar in the field
MSP-GC = millisecond pulsar in globular cluster
RB-F = Redback in the field
RB-GC = Redback in globular cluster
BW-F = Black Widow in the field
BW-GC = Black Widow in globular cluster
AMXP = Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar
MSP-DNS= millisecond pulsar with neutron star companion
MSP-planet = millisecond pulsar with planetary size companion
MSP-triple = millisecond pulsar in a triple system (MSP + 2 WDs)
-1 = possible isolated pulsar (corresponds to Lorimer’s “N/A”)
0 = measurement not available (corresponds to Lorimer’s “*”)

Legend:

P = spin period (in seconds); PDOT = spin period derivative; DM = dispersion measure; DIST = distance [kiloparsecs]; A1 = projected orbital semimajor axis [in light-seconds]; PB = orbital period [days]; ECC = eccentricity; MIN MASS = minimum companion mass in Solar mass units; TYPE = pulsar type;
Total Black Widows = 40 (2 are candidates, marked with a “?”)
Total Redbacks = 22
Total AMXPs = 19
 

NAME P
[s]
PDOT DM DIST
[kpc]
A1
[lt-s]
PB
[d]
Ecc Min
Mass [Msun]
TYPE
J1748-2446ad 0.00139595 0 235.6 0 1.1028 1.09443 0 0.16 RB-GC
J1803+1358 0.00152 0 59.2 0 1.422 1.566 0 0 MSP
B1937+21 0.001558 1.04E-19 71.02 5.00 -1 -1 -1 -1 MSP
B1957+20 0.001607 1.69E-20 29.1 1.53 0.0892 0.3820 -1 0.02 BW-F
J1747-4036 0.001650 0 152.90 5.74 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1810+1744 0.001660 0 39.70 2.49 0.0950 0.1500 0 0.04 BW-F
J1748-2446O 0.00167663 0 236.38 0 0.112 0.2595 0 0.04 BW-GC
J1227-4853 0.001686 1.11e-20 43.42 2.00 0.6685 0.2879 0 0.21 RB-F
J1023+0038 0.001688 1.20e-20 14.32 1.37 0.3433 0.1981 0 0.13 RB-F
J1748-2446P 0.00172862 0 238.79 0 1.272 0.3626 0 0.44 RB-GC
J1902-5105 0.001740 0 36.30 2.11 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1555-2908 0.00179 0 75.9 0 0.151 0.234 0 0 BW-F?
J1301+0833 0.001840 0 13.20 0.91 0 0.2700 0 0 BW-F
J0024−7204aa 0.00184538 0 24.941 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1843-1113 0.001846 9.59e-21 59.96 1.97 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1723-2837 0.001856 7.54e-21 19.69 1.00 1.2258 0.6154 0 0.24 RB-F
J1832-38 0.00187 0 78.6 0 0.061 0.900 0 0 BW-F?
J0034-0534 0.001877 4.97e-21 13.77 0.98 1.4378 1.5893 1.432e-05 0.14 MSP
J1748−2446ak 0.00189 0 236.7 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J0955-6150 0.00199 0 160.7 0 13.28 24.58 0 0 MSP
J2052+1219 0.00199 0 42.0 0 0.061 0.115 0 0 BW-F
J1431-4715 0.002012 1.41e-20 59.35 2.42 0.5501 0.4497 2.319e-05 0.12 RB-F
J1649+80 0.002021 0 31.09 3.38 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446Y 0.00204816 0 239.11 0 1.16 1.17 0 0.16 MSP-GC
J1543-5149 0.002057 1.62e-20 50.93 1.46 6.4803 8.0608 2.146e-05 0.22 MSP
J1748-2446V 0.00207251 0 239.11 0 0.567 0.5036 0 0.14 MSP-GC
J1906+04 0.00208 0 142.9 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1814+31 0.00209 0 34.6 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J2055+3837 0.00209 0 91.9 0 0 ~3 0 0 MSP
J0023-7203J 0.00210063 -9.7922e-21 24.5848 0 0.04040 0.12066 <0.00004 0.024 BW-GC
J1513-2550 0.00212 0 46.9 0 0.041 0.179 0 0 MSP
J1805+0615 0.00213 0 64.9 0 0.088 0.336 0 0 BW-F
J1903+0327 0.002150 1.88e-20 297.52 6.45 105.5935 95.1741 4.367e-01 0.89 MSP
J1544+4937 0.002159 2.93e-21 23.23 2.30 0.0329 0.1208 0 0.02 BW-F
J2006+01 0.00216 0 43.6 0 0.7 0.58 0 0 MSP
J2055+15 0.00216 0 40.2 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1342+2822C 0.002166 0 26.5 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J2241-5236 0.002187 6.64e-21 11.41 0.68 0.0258 0.1457 0.000e+00 0.01 BW-F
J1446-4701 0.002195 9.81e-21 55.83 2.03 0.0640 0.2777 2.110e-05 0.02 BW-F
J0024-7204Y 0.00219666 0 24.2 0 0.67176 0.52194 0.0 0.16 MSP-GC
J1748-2446E 0.0021978 0 236.84 0 23.6 60.06 0.02 0.25 MSP-GC
J2116+13 0.00222 0 30.3 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1751-2737 0.00223 0 260.6 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446L 0.0022447 0 237.74 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J2256-1024 0.002290 0 13.80 0.91 0.0830 0.2100 0 0.03 BW-F
J1701-3006F 0.00229473 0 113.36 0 0.0573 0.20549 0.0 0.024 BW-GC
J2017-1614 0.00231 0 25.4 0 0.043 0.098 0 0 MSP
J0218+4232 0.002323 7.74e-20 61.25 3.15 1.9844 2.0288 2.220e-05 0.17 MSP
J1017-7156 0.002339 2.22e-21 94.22 0.26 4.8300 6.5119 1.420e-04 0.19 MSP
J1731-1847 0.002345 2.54e-20 106.47 4.03 0.1202 0.3111 2.900e-05 0.03 BW-F
J0024-7204W 0.00235234 0 24.3 0 0.2435 0.1330 0.0 0.14 RB-GC
J0155+18 0.00236 0 19.8 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1858-2216 0.002380 0 26.60 1.35 0 46.1000 0 0 MSP
J2043+1711 0.002380 5.24e-21 20.71 1.13 1.6240 1.4823 3.342e-06 0.17 MSP
J1342+2822B 0.002389 1.858e-20 26.148 0 1.8756 1.41735 0.0 0.21 MSP-GC
J1124-3653 0.002410 0 44.90 4.40 0 0.227 0 0 BW-F
J2205+60 0.00241 0 157.6 0 1.184 1.094 0 0 MSP
J1553+54 0.00243 0 22.9 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1658-5324 0.002440 0 30.90 1.24 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1727-1609 0.00245 0 93.1 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1824-2452F 0.002451 0 123.8 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1748-2446Z 0.00246259 0 238.85 0 3.5304 3.48807 0.7608 0.25 MSP-GC
J1518+0204C 0.002484 0 29.3 0 0.057 0.087 0.0 0.04 BW-GC
J1641+3627E 0.002487 0 30.3 0 0.17 0.213 0.0 0.0195 BW-GC
J1921+0137 0.00250 0 104.9 0 7.73 9.93 0 0 MSP
J0646-54 0.00251 0 40.1 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1137+7528 0.00251 0 29.2 0 4.10 7.13 0 0 MSP
J0251+2606 0.00254 0 20.2 0 0.06 0.20 0 0 BW-F
J1342+2822A 0.002545 0 26.5 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J0557+1550 0.002556 7.35e-21 102.57 5.65 4.0545 4.8466 9.300e-06 0.19 MSP
J1311-3430 0.002560 2.10e-20 37.84 3.72 0.0106 0.0651 0 0.01 BW-F
J1908+2105 0.00256 0 61.9 0 0.12 0.15 0 0 RB-F
J0101-6422 0.002573 5.16e-21 11.93 0.73 1.7010 1.7876 0.000e+00 0.16 MSP
J0248+4230 0.00260 0 48.2 0 -1 -1 0 0 MSP
J1546−3747A 0.00260567 0 92.17 0 1.3833 1.34671 0.0 0.18 MSP-GC
J0406+30 0.00261 0 49.3 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J2115+5448 0.00261 0 77.4 0 0.044 0.135 0 0 MSP
J2215+5135 0.002610 0 69.20 3.30 0.4700 0.1800 0 0.20 RB-F
J2310-0555 0.00261 0 15.5 0 1.38 1.40 0 0 MSP
J0024-7204F 0.00262358 6.45e-20 24.379 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1125-6014 0.002630 4.01e-21 52.95 1.94 8.3392 8.7526 7.913e-07 0.28 MSP
J1938+20 0.00263 0 237.1 0 8.31 16.256 0 0 MSP
J2022+25 0.00264 0 53.7 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0024-7204O 0.00264334 3.0354e-20 24.363 0 0.04515 0.13597 <0.00016 0.025 BW-GC
J1921+19 0.00265 0 64.8 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1745+1017 0.002652 2.73e-21 23.97 1.36 0.0882 0.7302 0 0.01 BW-F
J1417-4402 0.00266 0 55 0 4.88 5.38 0 0 MSP
J1811-2405 0.002661 1.34e-20 60.60 1.70 5.7057 6.2723 1.641e-06 0.23 MSP
J1327-0755 0.002678 1.77e-20 27.91 2.17 6.6458 8.4391 8.485e-07 0.22 MSP
J1946-5403 0.00271 0 23.8 0 0.044 0.13 0 0 MSP
J1832-0836 0.002719 8.62e-21 28.18 1.40 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0621+25 0.002720 0 83.60 4.25 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0605+37 0.002730 0 21.00 1.16 0 55.6000 0 0 MSP
J0337+1715 0.002733 1.77e-20 21.32 1.30 1.2175 1.6294 6.918e-04 0.12 MSP
J1906+01 0.00279 0 126.9 0 0.625 0.609 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446Q 0.002812 0 234.50 0 28.602 30.295 0.722 0.53 MSP-GC
J1308-23 0.00283 0 22.4 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1625-0021 0.00283 0 16.5 0 4.588 7.383 0 0 MSP
J0024-7204S 0.00283041 -1.2054e-19 24.353 0 0.76627 1.20172 0.00039 0.10 MSP-GC
J0843+67 0.00284 0 20.7 0 7.32 7.351 0 0 MSP
J0636+5129 0.002869 3.38e-21 11.11 0.20 0.0090 0.0666 2.236e-05 0.01 MSP
J2339-0533 0.00288 0 8.72 0 0.612 0.193 0 0 RB-F
J0742+66 0.002886 0 14.96 0.87 0 0 0 0 MSP
J2017+0603 0.002896 8.30e-21 23.92 1.32 2.1929 2.1985 2.346e-06 0.18 MSP
J1909-3744 0.002947 1.40e-20 10.39 1.26 1.8980 1.5334 1.301e-07 0.20 MSP
J0102+4839 0.002960 0 53.50 4.03 0 1.6700 0 0 MSP
J1748−2446aj 0.00296 0 237.75 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J2045-68 0.00296 0 21.2 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446K 0.00296965 0 234.81 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J2229+2643 0.002978 1.46e-21 23.02 1.43 18.9125 93.0159 2.556e-04 0.12 MSP
J1518+0204D 0.002988 0 29.3 0 1.6 1.22 0.0 0.2 MSP-GC
J1748-2446X 0.00299926 0 240.03 0 5.1071 4.99850 0.3024 0.29 MSP-GC
J1823-3021D 0.00302 0 86.9 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1928+12 0.00302 0 179.2 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0023+0923 0.003050 0 14.30 0.95 0.0350 0.1400 0 0.02 BW-F
J0024-7204N 0.00305395 -2.187e-20 24.57 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
B1821-24A 0.00305431 1.55e-18 120 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1807-2459A 0.00305945 0 134.0 0 0.01220 0.07109 0.0 0.010 BW-GC
J0613-0200 0.003062 9.59e-21 38.78 0.90 1.0914 1.1985 5.500e-06 0.13 MSP
J1536-4948 0.003080 0 38.00 1.34 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1400-1438 0.003084 0.00e+00 4.93 0.27 8.4211 9.5474 0 0.26 MSP
J1012-4235 0.00310 0 71.6 0 21.26 37.97 0 0 MSP
J1125-5825 0.003102 6.09e-20 124.79 2.98 33.6384 76.4032 2.572e-04 0.26 MSP
J1641+3627D 0.003118 0 30.6 0 0.92 0.591 0.0 0.18 MSP-GC
J2214+3000 0.003119 1.40e-20 22.56 1.32 0.0591 0.4166 0.000e+00 0.01 BW-F
J0740+41 0.003139 0 20.83 1.29 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0614-3329 0.003149 1.75e-20 37.05 2.96 27.6388 53.5846 1.801e-04 0.28 MSP
J1614-2230 0.003151 9.62e-21 34.49 1.77 11.2912 8.6866 1.295e-06 0.40 MSP
J0307+7443 0.00316 0 6.3 0 16.108 37.108 0 0 MSP
J1640+2224 0.003163 2.83e-21 18.43 1.19 55.3297 175.4607 7.973e-04 0.25 MSP
J1946+3417 0.003170 3.70e-21 110.00 6.41 0 27.0000 1.400e-01 0 MSP
J1518+0204E 0.003182 0 29.3 0 1.2 1.10 0.0 0.18 MSP-GC
J1816+4510 0.003193 4.31e-20 38.89 4.20 0.5954 0.3609 7.810e-06 0.16 RB-F
J1905+0154A 0.003193 0 193.692 0 0.5886 0.81255 0.0 0.090 MSP-GC
J1628-3205 0.003210 0 42.10 1.54 0 0.2100 0 0 RB-F
J0024-7204H 0.00321034 -1.83e-21 24.36 0 2.15281 2.35770 0.07056 0.19 MSP-GC
J1710+49 0.003220 0 7.09 0.39 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1836-2354B 0.00323227 0 93.7 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1701-3006E 0.00323374 0 113.78 0 0.0701 0.15848 0.0 0.035 BW-GC
J1911-5958A 0.00326619 3.07e-21 33.68 0 1.20605 0.83711 <0.00001 0.22 MSP-GC
J2038-36 0.00327 0 23.9 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446U 0.00328914 0 235.46 0 5.97248 3.57026 0.60498 0.45 MSP-GC
J0340+4130 0.003290 0 49.60 2.67 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446af 0.00330434 0 237.34 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1630+37 0.003320 0 14.10 0.85 0 12.5000 0 0 MSP
J1836-2354A 0.00335434 0 89.1 0 0.0464 0.20276 0.0 0.020 BW-GC
J1103-5403 0.003393 3.68e-21 103.92 3.16 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1036-8317 0.00341 0 27.1 0 0.506 0.335 0 0 MSP
J1701-3006D 0.00341777 0 114.31 0 0.9880 1.11790 0.00045 0.14 MSP-GC
J2317+1439 0.003445 2.42e-21 21.91 1.89 2.3139 2.4593 5.000e-07 0.17 MSP
J0751+1807 0.003479 7.79e-21 30.25 0.40 0.3966 0.2631 7.071e-07 0.13 MSP
J0024-7204R 0.00348046 0 24.4 0 0.0334 0.0662 0.0 0.030 BW-GC
J0024-7204I 0.00348499 -4.587e-20 24.42 0 0.03844 0.22979 <0.0004 0.015 BW-GC
J1721-2457 0.003497 5.54e-21 47.76 1.56 0 0 0 0 MSP
J2150-03 0.00351 0 20.7 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
B1639+36B 0.00352807 0 29.5 0 1.389 1.25911 <0.001 0.19 MSP-GC
J0024-7204E 0.00353633 9.851e-20 24.230 0 1.98184 2.25684 0.00031 0.18 MSP-GC
J1216-6410 0.003539 1.62e-21 47.40 1.71 2.9371 4.0367 6.809e-06 0.16 MSP
J1933-6211 0.003543 3.70e-21 11.50 0.63 12.2816 12.8194 1.230e-06 0.32 MSP
J1850+0124 0.003560 1.09e-20 118.89 2.97 34.0010 84.9499 6.900e-05 0.25 MSP
J1748-2446M 0.00356957 0 238.65 0 0.596 0.4431 0 0.16 MSP-GC
J1545-4550 0.003575 5.25e-20 68.39 2.01 3.8469 6.2031 1.300e-05 0.15 MSP
J1514-4946 0.003590 0 31.50 1.27 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1855-1436 0.00359 0 109.2 0 29.22 61.54 0 0 MSP
J1701-3006B 0.00359385 -3.4978e-19 113.44 0 0.25277 0.14455 <0.00007 0.14 RB-GC
J1600-3053 0.003598 9.50e-21 52.33 2.40 8.8017 14.3485 1.737e-04 0.20 MSP
J1903-7051 0.00360 0 19.5 0 9.94 11.05 0 0 MSP
J2234+06 0.003600 0 11.00 0.63 0 32.0000 1.300e-01 0 MSP
J1944+2236 0.003618 7.46e-21 185.45 8.46 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1911+0102A 0.00361852 -6.58e-21 202.678 0 0.03766 0.140996 <0.00013 0.020 BW-GC
J1801-1417 0.003625 5.31e-21 57.21 1.80 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1911-1114 0.003626 1.42e-20 30.98 1.59 1.7629 2.7166 1.903e-05 0.12 MSP
J1828+0625 0.003630 0 22.40 1.18 0 6.0000 0 0 MSP
J2234+0944 0.00363 0 17.8 0 0.068 0.420 0 0 BW-F
J0024-7204P 0.00364302 0 24.3 0 0.0380 0.1472 0.0 0.02 BW-GC
J1740-5340 0.00365033 1.68e-19 71.8 0 1.65284 1.35406 <0.0001 0.22 RB-GC
J1748-2446ae 0.00365859 0 238.75 0 0.0406 0.17073 0 0.019 BW-GC
J1802-47 0.00367 0 41.6 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0023-7205M 0.00367664 -3.844e-20 24.42 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J0125-23 0.00368 0 9.6 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1231-1411 0.003684 2.28e-20 8.09 0.45 2.0426 1.8601 4.000e-06 0.18 MSP
J0024−7204ab 0.00370464 0.9844e-20 24.37 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1147-66 0.003720 0 133.80 4.26 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1641+3627C 0.003722 0 30.1 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J2129-5721 0.003726 2.09e-20 31.85 0.40 3.5006 6.6255 1.210e-05 0.13 MSP
J1801-0857C 0.003739 0 182.4 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1741+1351 0.003747 3.02e-20 24.21 0.93 11.0300 16.3350 0 0.24 MSP
J1302-32 0.003770 0 26.20 1.86 0 0 0 0 RB-F
J1905+0400 0.003784 4.91e-21 25.69 1.33 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1905+0400 0.003784 4.91e-21 25.69 1.33 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1652-48 0.003785 0 187.80 4.79 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1923+2515 0.003788 9.42e-21 18.86 0.99 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2021F 0.00379363 -1.055e-20 220.43 0 9.49757 9.83397 0.0531 0.35 MSP-GC
J1622-03 0.00385 0 21.3 0 0.22 0.16 0 0 MSP
J0610-2100 0.003861 1.24e-20 60.67 5.64 0.0735 0.2860 0 0.02 BW-F
J1835-3259A 0.003889 0 63.35 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1751-2857 0.003915 1.13e-20 42.81 1.44 32.5282 110.7465 1.283e-04 0.19 MSP
J1824-2452I 0.0039318526 0 119.0 0 0.76591 0.45940754 0.0 0.174 RB-GC+AMXP
J2019+2425 0.003935 7.02e-21 17.20 0.91 38.7676 76.5116 1.111e-04 0.31 MSP
J1937+16 0.00396 0 105.9 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1957+25 0.00396 0 44.1 0 0.283 0.238 0 0 MSP
B2127+11F 0.00402704 3.2e-20 65.52 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J0024-7204Q 0.00403318 3.402e-20 24.29 0 1.46221 1.18908 0.000085 0.21 MSP-GC
J1824-2452J 0.004039 0 119.2 0 0.0250 0.0974 0.0 0.015 BW-GC
J0024-7204G 0.00404038 -4.215e-20 24.441 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1824+1014 0.00407 0 59.9 0 35.44 82.54 0 0 MSP
J1744-1134 0.004075 8.93e-21 3.14 0.42 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0732+2320 0.00408 0 44.7 0 -1 -1 0 0 MSP
J1853+1303 0.004092 8.72e-21 30.57 1.60 40.7695 115.6538 2.369e-05 0.24 MSP
J0509+08 0.004100 0 38.00 2.58 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1824-2452L 0.0041 0 119.0 0 0.0570 0.22571 0.0 0.022 BW-GC
J1431-5740 0.004111 6.42e-21 131.46 4.07 2.2699 2.7269 4.300e-06 0.16 MSP
J1653-2054 0.004129 1.12e-20 56.56 2.64 0.6889 1.2268 0 0.08 MSP
J1824-2452C 0.004159 0 120.7 0 7.356 8.078 0.847 0.30 MSP-GC
J1737-0811 0.004175 7.93e-21 55.31 2.38 9.3328 79.5174 5.380e-05 0.07 MSP
J1807-2459B 0.004186 0 137.3 0 28.7895 9.95667 0.7470 1.47 MSP-GC-DNS
J1844+0115 0.004186 1.07e-20 148.22 3.45 14.1735 50.6459 2.578e-04 0.14 MSP
J1125+7819 0.00420 0 11.2 0 12.192 15.355 0 0 MSP
J1935+1726 0.004200 0 61.60 3.11 31.9742 90.7639 1.758e-04 0.22 MSP
J1748-2446W 0.00420518 0 239.14 0 5.869 4.877 0.015 0.34 MSP-GC
J1801-0857D 0.00422653 0 174.65 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1312+0051 0.004230 0 15.30 1.15 0 38.5000 0 0 MSP
J2047+1053 0.004290 0 34.60 2.23 0 0.1200 0 0 BW-F
J1950+24 0.00430 0 142.2 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1845+0200 0.00431 0 56.7 0 4.553 5.326 0 0 MSP
J1845+02 0.00431 0 56.7 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1852-13 0.00431 0 45.0 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0024-7203U 0.00434283 9.523e-20 24.335 0 0.52695 0.42911 0.00015 0.14 MSP-GC
J0024-7204L 0.00434617 -1.2206e-19 24.38 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J0533+67 0.004390 0 57.40 5.80 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1823-3021E 0.004394 0 91.4 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1803-3002B 0.004397 0 192.6 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1813-2621 0.004430 1.25e-20 112.52 3.37 5.5926 8.1598 2.657e-06 0.19 MSP
J1748-2446ag 0.00444803 0 237.75 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1824-2452K 0.004461 0 119.8 0 2.6050 3.91034 0.00152 0.16 MSP-GC
J1850+0242 0.004480 1.63e-19 540.07 13.10 0.4524 0.7354 9.009e-05 0.07 MSP
J1708-3506 0.004505 1.14e-20 146.73 3.50 33.5842 149.1332 2.445e-04 0.16 MSP
J2051-0827 0.004509 1.27e-20 20.74 1.28 0.0451 0.0991 0.000e+00 0.03 BW-F
J2042+0246 0.00453 0 9.3 0 24.57 77.20 0 0 MSP
J0024-7204Z 0.004554 0 24.47 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1825-0319 0.004554 6.80e-21 119.50 3.26 18.2664 52.6305 1.939e-04 0.18 MSP
J1713+0747 0.004570 8.53e-21 15.99 1.05 32.3424 67.8251 7.494e-05 0.28 MSP
J1910-5959E 0.00457177 -4.37e-19 33.29 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1643-1224 0.004622 1.85e-20 62.41 0.42 25.0726 147.0174 5.058e-04 0.12 MSP
J1911+1347 0.004626 1.71e-20 30.99 1.60 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1824-2452H 0.004629 0 121.5 0 0.7195 0.435 0.0 0.20 RB-GC
J1919+23 0.00463 0 38.4 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1709+2313 0.004631 3.63e-21 25.35 1.83 15.2885 22.7119 1.870e-05 0.27 MSP
J0931-19 0.00464 0 41.5 0 -1 -1 0 0 MSP
B2127+11E 0.00465144 1.78e-19 66.51 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1048+2339 0.00467 0 16.7 0 0.90 0.27 0 0 RB-F
J1239+3232 0.00470 0 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1826-24 0.00470 0 81.9 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446D 0.00471398 0 243.83 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J0024-7204X 0.004771 0 24.0 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1725-3853 0.004792 5.00e-20 158.20 3.44 0 0 0 0 MSP
B2127+11D 0.0048028 -1.075e-18 67.28 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J2322+2057 0.004808 9.70e-21 13.37 0.78 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0024-7204V 0.00481 0 24.1 0 0.85 0.227 0.0 0 MSP-GC
J2010+30 0.00481 0 133.8 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1207-5050 0.004840 0 50.60 2.19 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1823-3021F 0.00485 0 86.7 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J0030+0451 0.004865 1.02e-20 4.33 0.28 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1955+2527 0.004873 9.12e-21 209.97 9.06 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1953+1846A 0.004888 0 117 0 0.0782 0.1766 0.0 0.032 BW-GC
J1900+0308 0.004909 5.90e-21 249.90 5.27 6.7164 12.4760 0 0.17 MSP
J1748-2446H 0.00492589 0 238.13 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J2124-3358 0.004931 2.06e-20 4.60 0.30 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446ah 0.00496515 0 237.75 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1905+0154B 0.004968 0 192 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1910+1256 0.004984 9.69e-21 38.07 1.95 21.1291 58.4667 2.302e-04 0.19 MSP
J0514-4002 0.00499058 1.17e-21 52.1489 0 36.2966 18.7852 0.88798 1.1 MSP-GC
J1913+06 0.00502 0 156.0 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446R 0.00502854 0 237.60 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J2141-52 0.00504 0 19.6 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1142+0119 0.005070 0 19.20 2.04 0 1.5800 0 0 MSP
J1943+2210 0.005084 8.79e-21 174.09 8.35 8.0641 8.3115 2.865e-06 0.28 MSP
J1748-2446ac 0.00508691 0 238.72 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1835-0114 0.005116 7.00e-21 98.00 2.67 4.6544 6.6925 1.100e-05 0.18 MSP
J1748-2446ab 0.00511971 0 238.34 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1750-3703D 0.00513994 4.928e-19 230.09 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1024-0719 0.005162 1.85e-20 6.49 0.49 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1944+0907 0.005185 1.71e-20 24.34 1.28 0 0 0 0 MSP
J2302+4442 0.005192 1.33e-20 13.76 0.75 51.4299 125.9353 5.033e-04 0.29 MSP
J2010-1323 0.005223 4.82e-21 22.16 1.29 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1701-3006A 0.00524157 -1.3196e-19 115.03 0 3.48372 3.80595 0.00000 0.23 MSP-GC
J1012+5307 0.005256 1.71e-20 9.02 0.70 0.5818 0.6047 1.201e-06 0.11 MSP
J1911-6000C 0.00527733 2.2e-21 33.21 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1732-5049 0.005313 1.42e-20 56.82 1.81 3.9829 5.2630 8.683e-06 0.18 MSP
J0024-7204D 0.00535757 -3.429e-21 24.729 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
B1855+09 0.005362 1.78E-20 13.30 0.90 9.2308 12.3272 2.170E-5 0.24 MSP
J1911+0101B 0.00538432 -2e-21 196.69 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1824-2452E 0.00542 0 119.8 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
B1820-30A 0.00544 3.385e-18 86.8 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1342+2822D 0.005443 0 26.34 0 38.524 128.752 0.0753 0.21 MSP-GC
J1843-1448 0.005471 6.21e-21 114.51 3.42 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0711-6830 0.005491 1.49e-20 18.41 1.04 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446F 0.00554014 0 239.18 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1120-3618 0.005550 0 45.10 4.50 0 0 0 0 MSP
B1516+02A 0.00555359 4.122e-20 30.08 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J0023-7204C 0.00575678 -4.985e-20 24.599 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J0437-4715 0.005757 5.73e-20 2.64 0.16 3.3667 5.7410 1.918e-05 0.14 MSP
J1748-2446aa 0.00578804 0 237.42 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1719-1438 0.005790 8.04e-21 36.86 1.64 0.0018 0.0907 8.062e-04 0.00 MSP
J1453+1902 0.005792 1.16e-20 14.05 0.95 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1803-3002C 0.00584 0 194.5 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1646-2142 0.005850 0 29.80 1.41 0 23.0000 0 0 MSP
J1738+0333 0.005850 2.41e-20 33.77 1.47 0.3434 0.3548 3.401e-07 0.09 MSP
J1824-2452G 0.005909 0 119.4 0 0.0165 0.1046 0.0 0.011 BW-GC
J2301+20 0.00594 0 32.4 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J2033+1734 0.005949 1.11e-20 25.08 1.37 20.1631 56.3078 1.288e-04 0.19 MSP
J1748−2446al 0.00595 0 236.5 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1629-6902 0.006001 1.00e-20 29.49 1.36 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1750-3703B 0.00607454 1.92e-20 234.391 0 2.8659 3.60511 0.00404 0.19 MSP-GC
J1748-2446S 0.00611664 0 236.26 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
B1953+29 0.006133 2.97E-20 104.50 5.39 31.413 117.3491 3.302E-4 0.18 MSP
B1257+12 0.006219 1.14E-19 10.17 0.60 planets planets planets planets MSP-planets
J1748-2021C 0.00622693 -5.984e-20 226.95 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1552-4937 0.006284 1.90e-20 114.19 3.36 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1421-44 0.00638 0 55 0 TBD binary 0 0 MSP
J1824-2452B 0.006547 0 119.5 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
B2127+11H 0.00674339 2.4e-20 67.15 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J2236-5527 0.006908 9.60e-21 20.00 2.03 8.7759 12.6892 5.020e-05 0.22 MSP
J1748-2446T 0.00708491 0 237.70 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1551-0658 0.007090 0 21.60 1.46 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1803-30A 0.007101 0 192 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1801-0857A 0.007176 0 183.0 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1801-3210 0.007454 -4.44e-23 177.71 5.08 7.8093 20.7717 1.972e-06 0.14 MSP
J1045-4509 0.007474 1.77e-20 58.17 0.23 3.0151 4.0835 2.370e-05 0.16 MSP
J0024-7204T 0.00758848 2.937e-19 24.39 0 1.33850 1.12618 0.00040 0.20 MSP-GC
J1405-4656 0.007602 2.79e-20 13.88 0.74 6.5677 8.9564 6.403e-06 0.21 MSP
J1701-3006C 0.00761285 -3.189e-20 114.56 0 0.19288 0.21500 <0.00006 0.08 MSP-GC
J2129-04 0.007620 0 16.90 1.03 0 0 0 0 RB-F
J1918-0642 0.007646 2.57e-20 26.55 1.40 8.3505 10.9132 1.991e-05 0.24 MSP
J1902+0300 0.00779 0 253.7 0 1.843 2.399 0 0 MSP
J1546-59 0.007800 0 168.30 4.67 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1122-35 0.00783 0 39.5 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
B1516+02B 0.00794694 -3.3e-21 29.47 0 3.04859 6.85845 0.13784 0.13 MSP-GC
J1455-3330 0.007987 2.43e-20 13.57 0.74 32.3622 76.1746 1.700e-04 0.25 MSP
J1730-2304 0.008123 2.02e-20 9.62 0.51 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1910-5959B 0.0083578 -7.99e-19 33.28 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1748-2446C 0.0084361 -6.06e-19 237 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1528-3828 0.00849 0 73.6 0 10.645 11.516 0 0 MSP
J1953+67 0.008565 0 57.20 5.37 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446N 0.0086669 0 238.47 0 1.619 0.3855 0.000045 0.56 MSP-GC
J0645+5158 0.008853 4.92e-21 18.25 0.71 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1757-5322 0.008870 2.63e-20 30.82 1.36 2.0865 0.4533 4.016e-06 0.56 MSP
J1910-5959D 0.00903529 9.63e-19 33.32 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1804-2717 0.009343 4.09e-20 24.67 1.17 7.2815 11.1287 3.500e-05 0.20 MSP
J1435-6100 0.009348 2.45e-20 113.70 3.25 6.1840 1.3549 1.047e-05 0.88 MSP
J1337-6423 0.009423 2.47e-20 259.20 6.30 13.0865 4.7853 1.985e-05 0.78 MSP
J1611-29 0.00955 0 83.0 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446I 0.00957019 0 238.73 0 1.818 1.328 0.428 0.24 MSP-GC
J0922-52 0.009680 0 122.40 3.76 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1748-3009 0.009684 0 420.20 5.96 1.3201 2.9338 0 0.08 MSP
J0824+00 0.009900 0 35.00 2.57 0 0 0 0 MSP
B1639+36A 0.0103775 0 30.36 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J2140-2310A 0.0110193 -5.181e-20 25.0640 0 0.23494 0.17399 <0.00012 0.11 RB-GC
B1620-26 0.0110758 -5.4693e-20 62.8633 0 64.8095 191.443 0.02532 0.33 MSP-GC-planet
J0900-3144 0.011110 4.91e-20 75.70 0.82 17.2488 18.7376 1.030e-05 0.36 MSP
J1154-19 0.01112 0 10.7 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1525-5545 0.011360 1.31e-19 126.93 3.53 4.7105 0.9903 4.754e-06 0.81 MSP
J1748-2446A 0.0115632 -3.4e-20 242.1 0 0.11971 0.07565 0.0 0.10 RB-GC
J1618-39 0.011987 0 117.50 4.76 10.2400 22.8000 0 0.17 MSP
J1802-2124 0.012648 7.26e-20 149.63 3.33 3.7189 0.6989 2.474e-06 0.81 MSP
J1755-3716 0.012786 3.11e-20 167.60 6.38 10.6451 11.5156 1.389e-05 0.30 MSP
J2140-2310B 0.013 0 25.09 0 >0.1 >0.8 >0.52 >0.02 MSP-GC
J1949+3106 0.013138 9.39e-20 164.13 7.78 7.2886 1.9495 4.306e-05 0.80 MSP
J1748-2021D 0.0134958 5.8678e-19 224.98 0 0.3972 0.28607 0.00 0.14 RB-GC
J1603-7202 0.014842 1.56e-20 38.05 1.64 6.8807 6.3086 9.547e-06 0.29 MSP
J1806+28 0.01508 0 18.7 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0721-2038 0.015542 4.40e-20 76.10 3.87 9.3790 5.4608 1.020e-04 0.46 MSP
J2145-0750 0.016052 2.98e-20 9.00 0.57 10.1641 6.8389 1.930e-05 0.42 MSP
J1748-2021E 0.016264 3.124e-19 224.10 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1022+1001 0.016453 4.33e-20 10.25 0.52 16.7654 7.8051 9.700e-05 0.71 MSP
J1748-2021B 0.0167601 -3.2913e-19 220.922 0 4.46699 20.5500 0.57016 0.090 MSP-GC
J1914+07 0.01851 0 224.7 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
J1753-28 0.01862 0 298.4 0 TBD binary 0 0 MSP
J1745-0952 0.019376 9.25e-20 64.47 2.38 2.3786 4.9435 9.849e-06 0.11 MSP
J1952+2630 0.020732 4.27e-18 315.34 13.67 2.7982 0.3919 4.085e-05 0.93 MSP
J1748-2446ai 0.0212284 0 233.9 0 2.8088 0.85088 0.4400 0.57 MSP-GC
J1933+17 0.02151 0 156.6 0 13.674 5.156 0 0 MSP
J1748-2446G 0.0216719 0 237.57 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J0737-3039A 0.022699 1.76e-18 48.92 1.10 1.4150 0.1023 8.778e-02 1.25 MSP
J1851+00 0.02283 0 107.4 0 0 0 0 0 MSP
B1802-07 0.0231009 4.7e-19 186.38 0 3.92059 2.61676 0.21206 0.35 MSP-GC
J1622-6617 0.023623 5.88e-20 88.02 4.66 0.9794 1.6406 1.456e-05 0.09 MSP
J2007+2722 0.024497 9.61e-19 127.00 6.85 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0214+5222 0.024575 2.99e-19 22.04 1.21 174.5658 512.0397 5.328e-03 0.41 MSP
J0407+1607 0.025702 7.90e-20 35.65 4.07 106.4503 669.0704 9.368e-04 0.19 MSP
J1056-7117 0.026310 6.30e-20 93.04 5.27 4.1486 9.1388 1.342e-05 0.13 MSP
J1750-3703C 0.0265687 -9.96e-19 230.67 0 0 0 0 0 MSP-GC
J1502-6752 0.026744 3.15e-19 151.20 11.57 0.3175 2.4845 3.114e-05 0.02 MSP
J1727-2946 0.027083 2.46e-19 60.74 1.62 56.5325 40.3077 4.563e-02 0.83 MSP
J1756-2251 0.028462 1.02e-18 121.20 0.73 2.7565 0.3196 1.806e-01 1.10 MSP
J1439-5501 0.028635 1.42e-19 14.56 0.76 9.8334 2.1179 4.985e-05 1.11 MSP
J1038+0032 0.028852 6.70e-20 26.59 2.36 0 0 0 0 MSP
J0621+1002 0.028854 4.73e-20 36.60 1.88 12.0321 8.3187 2.457e-03 0.44 MSP
J1801-0857B 0.0289616 0 181.94 0 34.2866 56.7893 0.034 0.40 MSP-GC
J1841+0130 0.029773 8.17e-18 125.88 3.19 3.5041 10.4716 8.194e-05 0.10 MSP
SAXJ1808.4-3658 0.00249377 6.2e-21 0 0 0.0628 0.08375 0 0.043 AMXP
XTEJ1751-305 0.00229885 2.9e-20 0 0 0.010 0.0295833 0 0.014 AMXP
XTEJ0929-314 0.00540541 0 0 0 0.00599 0.0304167 0 0.0083 AMXP
XTEJ1807-294 0.00526316 0 0 0 0.0048 0.0279167 0 0.0066 AMXP
XTEJ1814-338 0.00318471 0 0 0 0.3906 0.177917 0 0.17 AMXP
IGRJ00291+5934 0.00166945 8.3e-21 0 0 0.065 0.1025 0 0.039 AMXP
HETEJ1900.1-2455 0.00265252 0 0 0 0.0184 0.0541667 0 0.016 AMXP
SwiftJ1756.9-2508 0.00549451 <6e-20 0 0 0.00597 0.0404167 0 0.007 AMXP
AqlX-1 0.00181818 0 0 0 0 0.7875 0 0.6 AMXP
SAXJ1748.9-2021 0.00226244 0 0 0 0.388 0.365417 0 0.1 AMXP
NGC6440X-2 0.00485437 0 0 0 0.00622 0.0395833 0 0.0067 AMXP
IGRJ17511-3057 0.00408163 0 0 0 0.275 0.144583 0 0.13 AMXP
SwiftJ1749.4-2807 0.0019305 0 0 0 1.90 0.3675 0 0.59 AMXP
IGRJ17498-2921 0.00249377 0 0 0 0.365 0.16 0 0.17 AMXP
MAXI J0911-655 0.002941436 0 0 0 0.0176 0.0307639 0 0.028 AMXP
IGR J17062-6143 0.0061104 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 AMXP

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The Habitable Zone Around Neutron Stars

Artist's_concept_of_PSR_B1257+12_system

In the past 20 years there has been an explosion of discoveries in the field of exoplanets, i.e. planets located outside our solar system. Today we know more than 3,600 exoplanets around 2,700 different stars and the number grows day after day as new data comes in.

The number of stars in our Milky Way alone is estimated to be around 400 billions and based on the observations of the aforementioned planetary systems, astronomers believe that something like at least 100 billion planets might lurk out there.

Exoplanets are usually discovered around main sequence stars, which are stars that are converting hydrogen into helium in their cores, a process that generates energy. The Sun is a main sequence star and the light we see comes from this type of nuclear reactions.

However, there is a very small number of planets that are known to orbit an extraordinary object: a neutron star. In retrospect, the very first exoplanets ever discovered were actually observed more than 20 years ago to rotate around a neutron star, specifically a pulsar (named PSR B1257+12).
This planetary system contains a millisecond pulsar, that spins on its axis every 6 milliseconds, plus three planets. The closest planet has the size of the Moon, whereas the other two are so-called Super-Earths, 4 times more massive than the Earth. They orbit the pulsar at a distance which is a bit less than half the distance of the Earth from the Sun.  Since then, only very few more planets have been discovered around pulsars.

The environment around neutron stars is very harsh, since these are very extreme and energetic objects. Large flows of X-rays are constantly emitted with an intensity thousands to million times stronger than the Sun, which would be of course a deadly experience for any form of life developing on such planets.
Furthermore pulsars emit charged particles with speeds close to the speed of light which are called “pulsar wind”. This wind is capable of hitting the atoms in the outer layers of a planet and quickly evaporate its atmosphere. Furthermore, the collision generates heat that in turn produces gamma rays, the most deadly type of radiation.

In a recent work, however, we have considered in detail the atmospheric processed that both X-rays and pulsar winds induce on planets around pulsars and we have found something very surprising. It is true that the gamma and X-rays, together with the pulsar wind, evaporate the atmosphere of a planet. However, if such a planet is a Super-Earth, it can take several hundred millions to several billion years to remove completely its atmosphere. This is due to the fact that Super-Earths have a huge atmospheric mass, hundred thousands to million times thicker than the Earth, even if they are slightly more massive than our planet.

The main reason for this is that their gravity is stronger and thus they can retain a much larger gaseous mass. The atmosphere of the primordial Earth was indeed much ticker than it is today and we live in the thin and precious layer that is left over since those times.

But what is even more surprising is the fact that the two Super-Earths around the pulsar PSR B1257+12 might very well still possess an atmosphere despite the hundred million years spent bathing in the deadly radiation coming from the pulsar. Therefore these planetary atmospheres might still be able to shield the surface of the planets from the dangerous incoming high energy radiation.

Another surprising fact is that as the planet absorbs part of the X-ray radiation and pulsar wind, its atmospheric temperature can rise to levels which are compatible with life. We cannot say for sure whether the two Super-Earths have still an atmosphere and whether the amount of energy absorbed is sufficient (or whether it is even too much) to set the temperature to acceptable levels, but it seems that neutron stars can have an habitable zone (or a “Goldilocks zone“) and with a bit of luck the two Super-Earths might lie within this soft temperature spot.

Imagine what would be life on such planets: a huge pressure on the surface (due to the large atmospheric mass) able to crush anything we are familiar with. And completely dark. A very thick, black, warm fog. Indeed since gamma and X-rays cannot penetrate the whole atmosphere and reach the surface, neither will ultraviolet, optical or infrared light. It must vaguely look (and feel) like the deepest regions of the sea here on Earth with the difference that you have a whole planet at your disposal.

If we want to go way beyond with our imagination we can envision a pulsar planet where life has developed and evolved for billion years and become complex like on Earth. But I believe we cannot stretch it much beyond an ecosystem similar (but more extreme) than we have here in the Mariana trench. On Earth we have barophiles (a form of extremophiles), organisms able to live and thrive in such extreme conditions. We have huge amoebas like the xenophyophores, single celled organisms 10 cm in size.  Sea cucumbers flourish on the floor of the Challenger Deep  and a couple kilometers above them you can find “supergiants”, a species of gigantic shrimps and even snailfish.

Other extreme creatures here on Earth comprise the tardigrades, amazing creatures that seem immortal. They are able to survive both in space and at pressures of several thousands times the surface pressure of Earth. Could life on pulsar planets resemble such organisms? This is of course impossible to say at the moment, although one can imagine sci-fi scenarios where life evolves in such extreme conditions.

Of course someone will say what about intelligent life? Would it be possible? Would it even be conceivable? I don’t believe this is possible but imagine what would it be. What would it be for an intelligent organism to communicate in this immensely thick fog. And if they would manage to make it outside their enormous atmosphere what would they see? A neutron star spinning hundreds of times per second and emitting beacons of radiation. They would learn with little effort things which are incredibly complex for us. They would witness the effects of general relativity in front of their eyes. Neutron stars do indeed bend space and time in a way that is second only to black holes. They could learn about ultra-dense matter and the behavior of the strong force if they could measure the mass and radius of their neutron star. They would witness the effects of strong magnetic fields and complex electromagnetism by looking at the pulsar. And perhaps they would then look at the other stars, the “normal” stars, like the Sun, and wonder whether life would be possible around those large distant objects, whether such poor emitters of X-ray radiation could sustain life. Whether it would be even conceivable to have life around such pale, cold, weak stars.

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